He also obtained striking effects by the frequent crossing of hands, tones repeated by rapidly changing fingers, etc. During his lifetime the following collections of keyboard works were publ. Alessandro Longo, Ralph Kirkpatrick, and Giorgio Pestelli prepared chronological catalogues of his sonatas. The one by Kirkpatrick is the most widely accepted.
The following editions of his sonatas should be consulted: A. Longo, ed. Kirkpatrick, D. Gilbert, ed. Kirkpatrick, ed. Fadini, ed. Longo, D. Gerstenberg, Die Klavier-Kompositionen D. Sitwell, A Background for D. London, ; C. Valabrega, Il Clavicembalista D. Luciani, D.
Turin, ; R. Princeton and London, ; third ed. Rome, ; A. Basso, La formazione storica ed estetica della storia di D. Keller, D. Pestelli, Le sonate di D. Sheveloff, The Keyboard Music of D. Choi, Newly Pound 18 th -century Manuscripts of D. Ife, D. Sevenoaks, England, ; R. Pagano, S. Williams, ed. Boyd, D. Vidali, A. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. October 19, Retrieved October 19, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Domenico Scarlatti was an Italian harpsichordist and composer. His harpsichord sonatas are highly distinctive and original. Domenico Scarlatti was born in Naples on Oct. Other members of the Scarlatti family were active as professional musicians.
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This background may have helped Domenico, for it encouraged his musical gifts and provided contacts in the musical profession. On the other hand, it gave him the problem of developing in his own way while under the influence of his father. Alessandro was not only a composer of genius, but a man of strong personality who did not get along well with some of his pupils and colleagues. It is natural to assume, though there is no actual proof, that Domenico studied first with his father.
When later inscribing a title page for both sets, Bach the father characterized all thirty works as inventiones —apparently, as Dreyfus has also suggested, on account of their compositional-pedagogical value , 1; see also Ledbetter , 52 :. Example 2. The Langloz manuscript, Prelude No. And this discovery may occur even with the seemingly simplest of basses. By looking only at the surface of the prelude of Langloz 48 Example 1 , and especially at the notable absence of distinctive motivic material, the partimento appears to say very little about how it might represent the prelude genre.
What’s in a name? Handel’s autograph annotations
But the broader lesson to be learned from this and other preludes in P concerns invention as a structuring principle that is common though not exclusive to the genre, as exemplified in the Langloz manuscript and The Well-Tempered Clavier. Example 2 presents a simple chordal realization which illustrates that nearly the entirety of the partimento is built on a scale-harmonization of an octave in the melody, to and from scale degree 3.
The bass descends along with the melody in parallel 10ths for the entire scale, save for its endpoint at m. Framing the scale-harmonization on either side is an Orgelpunkt pedal point at the beginning—with do — re — me or me — fa — me in the melody—and an extended cadence at the end.
Bach, Handel, Scarlatti : Peter Williams : : Blackwell's
Walther called this particular close a clausula formalis perfectissima , which is roughly equivalent to the modern-day perfect authentic cadence. Lester observed that the four preludes generally reflect a prescription for extemporizing or preludizing that is advanced in C. Example 3. Annotated Thoroughbass Renderings of J. Bach described it sich lange aufhalten [—62] , Of the four preludes, only the C minor has a literal Orgelpunkt at its beginning, as does the D-minor Prelude of Langloz Example 4.
Andreas Werckmeister, Harmonologia Musica , 48—49 : clausulae. The clausulae specified both a voice-leading motion particular to a part, and a type of cadence which assigns one of these motions to the bass. The D-minor Prelude of Langloz 48 actually closes with an extended variant of the clausula formalis perfectissima : the cadenza composta maggiore Walther , ; examples are provided in the Appendix , 2.
Niedt distinguished these from other less conclusive clausulae by designating them Cadenz-Clauseln , 40—41, —27; Appendix , 5—6. Example 5. This design reveals only one part of the story, however: prior to the discussion of improvisation, C. In light of the larger discussion, C. Example 6. In each case, the descent moves in parallel tenths with the bass, and to and from scale degree 3, precisely as in the D-minor Prelude of Langloz Detailed analytic reductions for all four preludes are given in Examples 6—9. The annotations clarify the underlying figured-bass, analyze the tonality and modulations via scale-degree designations in the bass, and illustrate the counterpoint between the lowermost and upper voices for the fugue.
Examples 10 and 11 reproduce the first manuscript pages of the C-minor Fugue and the D-minor Prelude. Though varied throughout the mini-series, and with increasing degrees of complexity as regards harmonization and use of thoroughbass patterns, overall tonal plan, transpositions of material, and so forth, the four preludes are substantively built on a common blueprint: one or more series of descending scales in parallel tenths in the outer voices. Example 7. Example 8. Example 9. Example Realizations for the twelve descending exercises minus the closing cadence are provided in Example All fourteen of the original exercises repeat their respective patterns in the keys of the dominant and submediant, followed by a da capo return to the tonic.
For this reason only the C-major section is given in Example But the stepwise top voice recurs throughout the exercises, even when the bass assumes a more disjunct profile and ascending motion. Overall, the fourteen exercises use only three thoroughbass formulas and their variants: descending fauxbourdon , the ascending 5—6 sequence nos. These include an octave descent to and from scale degree 3, a hexachordal descent from the dominant to the leading tone which resolves to the tonic at the close, a hexachordal descent from the mediant to the dominant, and a fifth descent with a neighboring scale degree 6 from the dominant to the tonic.
Example 13b. The scale s may vary in length from a hexachord to as many as four octaves, and appears principally in the melody.
But the invention may involve a melody-bass pairing of scales as in the mini-series , a melody and inner-voice pairing of scales, a trio of descending scales involving the outer voices and an inner voice, or simply a bass scale. The E-flat minor Prelude from Book I of The Well-Tempered Clavier , for example, descends two octaves in its structural melody, to and from scale degree 5, but over a disjunct and variously sequential bass, from mm.
Example 13a provides a thoroughbass reduction that is adapted from analytic annotations in a later manuscript copy of The Well-Tempered Clavier , SBB Mus. Bach P These include, among others, the preludes numbered 44 C minor , 47 D major , 49 D minor , 53 E-flat major , and 54 E minor , realized in Examples 14— Prelude No.
Bach suggests in the Versuch. This prelude is built on no fewer than four uninterrupted octave descents plus a minor third in its melody, from beginning to end.
Ralph Kirkpatrick: A Bibliography and Discography
Similar to the Vorschriften exercises, an inner voice can be relocated to the uppermost part, allowing for variation of the structural melody, a feature that is common to several preludes of P For No. An alternate realization for mm. And, as with all the preludes in the mini-series, the descending scale is bordered by an opening tonic lingering m.
The invention does not simply involve the use or recognition of a structural object or pattern, such as a series of parallel tenths.