You can start or join in a discussion here. Visit emeraldpublishing. Abstract Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline and examine existing economic findings about the effects of information and communication technology on economic productivity, welfare and social change. Findings Most studies indicate that ICT has significantly added to GDP and has been growth enhancing but these effects vary considerably between economies.
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- The impacts of ICT on Modern World Business;
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Contact us. To rent this content from Deepdyve, please click the button. According to Moher et al. Among the reviews retrieved, one is a Cochrane review [ 16 ] and others are non-Cochrane reviews [ 21 , 22 ]: these two kinds of reviews might be different, considering the methodological rigour underlying Cochrane reviews and their regular updates [ 25 ].
Thus, it is essential to take into account the methodological quality of the reviews when interpreting their results. The scope for the overview has been formulated with the participants, interventions, comparisons, outcomes PICO , which is helpful and form the basis to establish eligibility criteria, with this additional component, the types of study design [ 26 ]. Registered nurses according to the professional legislation of each country. These nurses work in different settings, such as hospitals, outpatient clinics ambulatory care , the community, long-term care centers, etc.
Nurses in training or nursing students will be included only if they provide direct care to patients. Patients receiving care from qualified registered nurses through the medium of at least one type of ICT. Mair et al. Each of them will be explained. Management systems. They are computer-based systems for acquiring, storing, transmitting, and displaying patient administrative or health information from different sources that can support administrative or clinical activities. Management systems include ICTs such as electronic health records and personal patients health records. Communication systems.
This kind of communication takes place in a synchronous or asynchronous way, between health professionals or between health professionals and patients or carers. It involves a targeted sharing of information between specific individuals or individuals who play distinct roles for diagnostic, management, counseling, educational, or support purposes. There are a wide range of communication systems, from e-mail and smart phones through telemedicine and telecare systems. Computerized decision support systems.
These systems refer to a computer-based system, which is automated and aims to support health professionals in practicing within clinical guidelines and care pathways or providing best evidence-based care. These kinds of systems are usually operated in real time and involve decision support that comes from artificial intelligence for example, a software program rather than a person. Information systems. These systems are defined by the use of internet technology to attain access to different information resources, such as health and lifestyle information.
The information remains at a general level, and it is not tailored to specific individual needs. Web-based resources and e-health portals for retrieving information are applications of information systems. However, this categorization is clear and understandable, so it can be used to map the type of intervention that will be included in the overview. The conceptual framework that we use to illustrate how ICT interventions influence nursing care and can impact health outcomes is based on an organizational model, the Nursing Care Performance Framework [ 29 ], from which we integrated dimensions of nursing activities [ 30 ], which position the full scope of nursing practices.
This model [ 29 ] illustrates how the interplay between resources or the overall structure nursing staff and the processes e. Based on the conceptual framework Dubois et al. Conceptualization of the primary and secondary outcomes of interest. The conceptual framework, adapted from Dubois et al.
Literature review on the impact of information and communication technology
Nursing sensitive outcomes or patients outcomes , such as patient safety, comfort, and quality of life related to care, empowerment, functional status, satisfaction, and patient experience will be included as primary outcomes if they depend on the usage of ICTs by nurses. The conceptualization of outcomes i. For example, it is possible that professional satisfaction will be defined with different indicators in the systematic reviews from those presented in Fig.
Reviews published in English, French, or Spanish between 1 January and the search date will be considered. Structured search strategies will be developed using the thesaurus terms of each database e. The strategy will then be adapted to the other databases. A health information specialist will be consulted for the development of the search strategies, and this person will help for performing the searches. This strategy will be adapted and refined according to the specificities of the other databases. We will first remove duplicate publications.
Two reviewers will independently screen the title and abstract of the papers in order to assess their eligibility. We will obtain full text copies of publications that meet the pre-established inclusion criteria.
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The reviewers will compare their results and discuss them in case of discrepancies. If a consensus is not possible, arbitration with a third review author will be required. As suggested by Smith et al. The following information will be retrieved for each systematic review: publication year with authors , objectives, search strategy and date , number of included studies, number of participants, and method of analysis employed.
We will extract the following information: characteristics of the population and setting nurses, qualification, healthcare setting , type of interventions e. We will also document the context and implementation aspects related to the interventions. Any disagreements arising during the data extraction process will be resolved by discussion and consensus involving the two reviewers or will involve a third review author, if needed. If any information is missing or incomplete, we will try to contact the review authors.
Two reviewers will independently assess the methodological quality of each review that meets the eligibility criteria, using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews AMSTAR tool [ 35 , 36 ].
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Items of the AMSTAR provide an assessment of methodological criteria such as the comprehensiveness of the search strategy used and whether the quality of included studies was evaluated and accounted for [ 37 ]. We will also report reasons and appropriate details concerning the excluded reviews. If possible, we will perform a meta-analysis. If we cannot, we will undertake a statistical analysis based on types of variables, as recommended by Grimshaw et al.
We will summarize the quality of the evidence regarding the most important outcomes by using the Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation GRADE approach [ 41 , 42 ].
Impact of ICTs on ...
We will categorize the reviews into subgroups, according to the type of intervention and its purpose ICTs, such as electronic health records used for assessment, web-based intervention for health promotion purposes, etc. Results of this overview could be used to develop a broad picture of the dimensions of nursing care that have the potential to be supported, enhanced, or constrained by the use of ICTs to provide different kinds of care and service among patients. This overview is an interesting starting point from which to compare and contrast findings of separate reviews [ 33 ] regarding the positive and negative effects of ICTs on nursing care.
In so doing, we can target. As pointed out by Becker and Oxman [ 34 ], an overview aims to summarize evidence from more than one systematic review, where different combinations could be achieved, such as variety in terms of types of interventions ICTs , types of outcomes, and types of population. We believe that this overview can have implications for health policy, nursing care, and research. We think that if we better understand the effects of these ICTs, we could deploy strategies to facilitate their implementation and their integration in nursing care.
Consequently, we could overcome their negative effects and optimize the positive ones, in order to use them to their full potential, as a tool to support nursing care and, ultimately, improve patient outcomes. National telemedicine initiatives: essential to healthcare reform. Telemed J E Health.